Credit card fraud first made an appearance soon after the first issues of general use credit cards, which occurred in the early 1950s. Numbering systems and codes have been part of credit and debit card security systems since those early days.
The standardisation and regulation of credit cards, and more broadly identification cards has been managed by several authorities over the years but is now principally managed by the International Organisation for Standardization and the International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC).
With regard to the physical requirements of a credit card, the US system was previously guided by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). In 1983 ANSI published the standards for Financial Transaction Cards; ANSI X4.13-1983.
In 2003 however, a new standard was developed by the ISO/IEC that provided a standardization system for the entire globe. The new ISO/IEC standards were published in the document ISO/IEC 7810:2003.
The ISO/IEC7810:2003 specifies that there are four standard size identification card, which includes credit cards, all of them having a nominal thickness of 0.76mm.
The ISO/IEC technical committee: ISO/IEC JTC1/SC17 for cards and security devices for personal identification advices, decides on technical aspects affecting credit card use and integrity, and develops global standards.
International standards regarding numbering systems and registration procedure for issuer identification cards, including credit cards, were first published by the ISO in 1985 in the ISO 7812:1985 document. Since 1985 there has been 5 revisions of the standards and from 1993 the standard was published in 2 parts.
These are the standards that specifies the numbering system for the identification of the card user, the format of the issuer identification number (IIN) and the Primary Account Number (PAN).